Sudan has been facing political instability for decades. The country has been under the rule of authoritarian regimes, military coups, and civil wars, which have significantly affected its economic and social development. In 2019, a peaceful revolution led by the Sudanese people overthrew the 30-year dictatorship of Omar al-Bashir. Since then, Sudan has been going through a difficult transition period, with a fragile civilian-military partnership at the helm. However, the ongoing confrontation between the military and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) threatens to undermine the stability in Sudan and the Horn of Africa.
The RSF is a paramilitary group created in 2013 by the former regime of al-Bashir. The group was initially formed to fight against the rebels in Darfur, but it has since expanded its role to include border control and the protection of strategic resources such as gold mines. The RSF is now led by General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, also known as Hemeti, who is also the deputy leader of the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and a member of the Sovereign Council, which is the highest decision-making body in Sudan.
The RSF has been accused of committing human rights abuses, including extrajudicial killings, torture, and rape. The group has also been accused of being involved in the violent dispersal of peaceful protests in 2019 that led to the ousting of al-Bashir. Since then, the RSF has been in a power struggle with the civilian government, which is seeking to dismantle the group and integrate its members into the regular army or other civilian institutions.
The power struggle between the military and the RSF is a significant challenge to the stability of Sudan and the Horn of Africa. The civilian government is trying to build democratic institutions and create a peaceful and prosperous society. Still, the military and the RSF represent a significant obstacle to achieving these goals. The RSF’s control over strategic resources such as gold mines and its presence in border areas gives it significant leverage over the government. The group’s members also have significant political influence, as many of them have been appointed to key government positions.
The military and the RSF’s confrontation also poses a security threat to the Horn of Africa. Sudan shares borders with several countries, including Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Sudan, and Chad, which are already facing significant security challenges. The ongoing conflict in Ethiopia’s Tigray region has spilled over into Sudan, with refugees fleeing the violence and seeking shelter in Sudanese camps. Sudan’s border with Eritrea is also a hotspot for cross-border smuggling and trafficking. The situation is further complicated by the involvement of foreign actors such as the United Arab Emirates, which has been supporting the RSF.
The civilian government and the military need to work together to resolve their differences and build a stable and prosperous Sudan. The government needs to prioritize the establishment of democratic institutions, rule of law, and respect for human rights. The military needs to be restructured and integrated into civilian institutions, and the RSF needs to be disbanded or brought under civilian control. The international community can support these efforts by providing financial and technical assistance to Sudan and ensuring that its strategic interests are not compromised by external actors.
The ongoing conflict between the military and Rapid Support Forces (RSF) in Sudan poses significant risks of regional spread and intervention. As the conflict continues, neighboring countries may become involved, either to protect their own interests or to support one side or the other. This could lead to a broader regional conflict, destabilizing the Horn of Africa and threatening international peace and security.
Furthermore, external actors may become involved in the conflict, either to support one side or to advance their own strategic interests. This could exacerbate the conflict and lead to increased violence and instability in Sudan.
In addition, the involvement of external actors could complicate efforts to find a peaceful and democratic solution to the conflict. These actors may have different agendas and priorities, and their involvement could undermine efforts to promote dialogue and reconciliation among Sudanese stakeholders.
To mitigate the risks of regional spread and intervention, it is essential that the international community works together to support Sudan’s transition to democracy and stability. This can include providing financial and technical support, promoting dialogue and reconciliation, and holding accountable those responsible for human rights abuses and violations of international law.
The African Union, the United Nations, and regional partners have an essential role to play in promoting peace and security in the Horn of Africa. They can work together to promote dialogue, support democratic institutions, and prevent the spread of violence and instability.
The United States has played a significant role in Sudan over the years, providing humanitarian aid, political support, and military assistance. In the wake of the ongoing conflict between the military and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF), the United States has a crucial role to play in promoting stability and democracy in Sudan. Going forward, there are several steps that the United States can take to support Sudan in its transition to a stable and democratic society.
Firstly, the United States should continue to provide humanitarian aid to Sudan, which is facing significant economic and social challenges. This aid can help alleviate the suffering of the Sudanese people and provide essential services such as healthcare, education, and food security.
Secondly, the United States should work closely with the civilian government in Sudan to promote democratic institutions and the rule of law. This can include providing technical assistance and training to government officials, supporting civil society organizations, and promoting free and fair elections.
Thirdly, the United States should help to restructure the military in Sudan and integrate the Rapid Support Forces into civilian institutions. This can help reduce the influence of the military and the RSF over political and economic decision-making and promote civilian control of security forces.
Fourthly, the United States should use its diplomatic and economic leverage to encourage other countries to support Sudan’s transition to democracy and stability. This can include working with regional partners such as the African Union and the United Nations to promote peace and security in the region.
Finally, the United States should continue to monitor the situation in Sudan closely and hold accountable those responsible for human rights abuses and violations of international law. This can help promote justice and accountability and deter further abuses.
In conclusion, the ongoing confrontation between the military and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF) in Sudan is a significant threat to stability in the country and the wider Horn of Africa region. As the Tactics Institute for Security and Counter-Terrorism, we believe that the conflict must be resolved through a peaceful and democratic process. This can be achieved through the establishment of democratic institutions, the rule of law, and respect for human rights.
We call on the Sudanese government, the military, and the RSF to work together to find a solution that benefits all parties and builds a stable and prosperous Sudan. The international community also has a crucial role to play in providing financial and technical support to Sudan and ensuring that its strategic interests are not compromised by external actors.
It is our hope that the ongoing conflict in Sudan can be resolved through dialogue and diplomacy, and that the country can move towards a brighter and more secure future. We remain committed to supporting efforts to promote peace and stability in Sudan and the wider Horn of Africa region.